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Relationship Between the Height of a Tank with Pipe Fittings and Efflux Time

The problem of determining the efflux time for tanks of various sizes, shapes, and purposes has received significant attention by engineering literature. Models developed are typically situational, and prove useful in very specific scenarios. Few of these models however, take into consideration tanks with pipe fittings or some kind of tubing aligned. Traditional investigations focus on efflux times of tanks with open orifices, through the usage and manipulation of Torricelli’s law. This essay deals with tanks that are connected to pipes, and how the friction between the fluid and pipe walls impedes the usage of Torricelli’s law and requires more advanced models. The principal objective of this essay is to develop a model that describes the efflux time of tanks with pipe fittings by investigating its relationship with fluid velocity and flow rate. This includes usage of Bernoulli's Extended equations and undertaking the assumptions of pseudo-steady state flow. The computer software MATLAB will be used to develop the efflux time model and other complex differential equations. The model developed by the paper is then compared to other models in literature, in terms of accuracy of prediction. The most significant conclusion arrived at is that ignorance of minor losses advances the argument over its significance when dealing with the efflux of tanks, and must be considered in any new models in the future.

Tanks, Unsteady Flow, Exit Pipe, Continuity

APA Style

Mehdi Khfifi. (2022). Relationship Between the Height of a Tank with Pipe Fittings and Efflux Time. Industrial Engineering, 6(1), 10-18.

ACS Style

Mehdi Khfifi. Relationship Between the Height of a Tank with Pipe Fittings and Efflux Time. Ind. Eng. 2022, 6(1), 10-18. doi: 10.11648/

AMA Style

Mehdi Khfifi. Relationship Between the Height of a Tank with Pipe Fittings and Efflux Time. Ind Eng. 2022;6(1):10-18. doi: 10.11648/

Copyright © 2022 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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